The hottest made in China must ride the wind and b

2022-08-14
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Made in China must ride the wind and break the waves again

the executive meeting of the State Council held on June 19 studied and deployed policies and measures for financial support for economic restructuring, transformation and upgrading. The meeting called for guiding credit funds to support the real economy and increasing credit support for advanced manufacturing, strategic emerging industries, labor-intensive industries and service industries, and the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries

the main economic data released previously in May showed that the added value of industries above designated size increased by 9.2% year-on-year in real terms, and exports increased by 1% year-on-year. Under the multiple pressures of overcapacity, weak domestic demand, blocked exports and rising costs, it is not easy for made in China to achieve such growth. However, these data still expose all kinds of chronic diseases and deficiencies made in China. In the future, the growth rate of labor and capital investment in China may further slow down, technological progress is relatively slow, and the slowdown of economic growth rate will still exist for a period of time. Therefore, to build an upgraded version of China's economy, we can calmly cope with the uncertainties and challenges of the world economy. The policies and measures introduced this time are targeted and have long-term benefits. So what diseases did made in China suffer from? The author believes that there are ten main points:

first, the added value is not high. Made in China is dominated by assembly and OEM, and the industrial value-added rate is only 26.5%, 18.4 percentage points lower than that of the United States. The profit margin is lower, with an average of 1.47% for export enterprises in 2012. Both OEM (original equipment manufacturer) and ODM (original design manufacturer) are at the bottom of the smile curve, with low added value. OBM (original brand manufacturer) production, that is, the OEM operates its own brand, and the added value is relatively high. For example, Foxconn is brewing transformation. Assembly and OEM have never created a first-class manufacturing power in history, and independent research and development is the right way

second, low labor productivity and high material and energy consumption. Made in China generally has high energy consumption, low output and low efficiency

third, independent innovation is weak, and reliability and accuracy are insufficient. For example, the average time between failures of foreign CNC systems is 70000 ~ 100000 hours, while the average time between failures of domestic CNC systems is only 10000 hours. Although some equipment has been replaced by imports, the supply rate of independent technology is not high, key products and core technologies are controlled by others, and the hollowing or hollowing out of mainframe equipment is common

fourth, there are few technology intensive high-end products and high-end links, and the quality needs to be improved. In terms of bulk commodities, there is a big gap between made in China and made in Germany. As far as major equipment is concerned, even if the first set of equipment has been achieved in China, most of them are major special research and development and key research products, which have not really realized commercialization. Many problems have been exposed in the process of use, and some problems have occurred frequently even in the commissioning stage. Moreover, the first set of equipment is often based on a single batch (piece), which is mainly manufactured for the specific requirements of specific users, and it is often difficult to industrialize. If too many equipment with similar principles, similar functions and different forms are identified as the first set and given corresponding subsidies, it may produce negative path dependence. Changing high output to high quality is the only way for the transformation and upgrading of Chinese manufacturing

fifth, the bottleneck between patents and standards. China's technology generally comes from imitation innovation or introduction, digestion, absorption and re innovation, mainly utility model patents. The patenting of technology is only one aspect, and the standardization of technology is more important. The production of air conditioners, color TVs and DVDs in China is frivolous and fashionable, ranking first in the world. However, the international standard of household appliances formulated by Chinese enterprises is less than 0.3%. Weichai Lanqing series, JAC d19tci and Great Wall TCI engines independently developed in China still have to pay high patent fees to AVL in Austria and Bosch in Germany. The 4G standard has made a turnaround in China, and there is no need to be transfused by Qualcomm and other companies

sixth, pollution before treatment is not worth the loss, and the time, environment and cost are unbearable. For many years, China's rough growth economic model of high investment and high energy consumption has caused high environmental pollution. Today, the space to continue to increase investment in fixed assets is already very limited. Of course, new investment is also needed to manage and improve the environment

seven is the lack of invisible champions and small giant enterprises. Technology-based small and medium-sized enterprises are often more dynamic, efficient and growing innovation subjects, and can quickly update, improve and innovate products according to market feedback, so as to achieve high efficiency of technological innovation and industrialization of scientific and technological achievements. In China, more than 60% of patents and more than 80% of new products are also created by small and medium-sized enterprises, but the development is far from enough

eight is brand weakness. The reason why foreign brands are profitable in the Chinese market is not because of the progressiveness of technology and management, but because of their serious price discrimination and brand premium. Globally, there are many made in China and few Chinese brands. From the perspective of the overall environment, 60% of Chinese enterprises have no registered trademarks, and more than 99% have not applied for patents. How to build brands

ninth, the extension of the industrial chain is insufficient, the high-end is absent, and there is a lack of support. To develop the world's leading manufacturing industry, it is not enough to only master the world's leading R & D and innovation. We must develop the high-end links of the industrial chain and the overall service environment. China's modern manufacturing service industry is underdeveloped, lacking not only system integration and complete turnkey enterprises integrating design, manufacturing and service, but also the front-end and back-end high-value chain links of the industrial chain, and there are few supporting small and medium-sized enterprise groups and financial service institutions

ten is brain drain. After entering the 21st century, the accuracy of the world does not increase significantly; Calm, trade disputes emerge one after another, and the talent war is gradually rising. Not only many developed countries have increased their efforts to attract or retain global talents, but even some developing countries have followed suit

according to the inverted pyramid theory, the value of all economic financialization in any country or region can form an inverted pyramid structure, and the most cutting-edge is the material products in physical form, which is the first layer; The second level is trade in goods and real services; The third level is stocks, bonds, commodity futures, etc; The top layer is completely virtual financial derivatives. Moreover, the growth of the upper part of the inverted pyramid structure is much higher than that of the lower part. This is similar to the smile curve theory, but it better explains why Chinese people are diligent but not rich. Although 1. The scope of use of the thin film pendulum impact testing machine has experienced 30 years of rapid economic growth, its living standard is far from that of Japan and South Korea. Just because people are at the bottom of the spire, it is difficult to make a big cake. Even if it is big, it cannot be shared. The reason why China has repeatedly become the first target country and the biggest victim of trade barriers in recent years is that the price of a raw material at the bottom of the tower has soared, and the U.S. steel and aluminum tariffs have "forced crying" suppliers. Some developed countries hope that China will always be willing to play the role of blood transfusion, so they keep cracking down

of course, the strength of the world factory is beyond doubt and cannot be underestimated. But from the perspective of sunk costs, it is even a heavy burden. The tide of the third industrial revolution is in full swing, and great changes in business philosophy, production mode and even the whole set of business models are imminent. It is obviously difficult to cope with it by relying on the old capital and experience of automation and informatization, let alone China has not graduated. Therefore, made in China must put down its burden and set sail again. Ride the wind and break the waves. Mo Dao Xiongguan is really like iron, and now he steps over from the beginning

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