Problems that should be paid attention to in the d

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Problems that should be paid attention to in the design of storage and transportation packaging

if you use paper packaging every day, do you know how to design, test and scientifically use packaging? If you are a producer of paper packaging, do you know how to produce more economical and practical cartons? The column "teach you to become a paper packaging expert" will officially meet you from now on. Based on the principles of practicality and understandability, this column will help carton users and carton factories scientifically design carton structures, develop cartons with more reasonable functions, reduce costs, and achieve the common improvement of users and packaging manufacturing industry

the basic purpose of transportation packaging is to protect the product and ensure that the product can perform its intended function when it is put into use. In other words, the packaging must protect the whole process of the packaged goods from leaving the factory, through transportation, storage, loading and unloading, and finally to the users. Therefore, the packaging used should not only prevent the damage caused by vibration and impact during transportation, but also prevent the harmful effects caused by nature and region

packaging method

shockproof packaging (buffer packaging), waterproof packaging, moisture-proof packaging, rust proof packaging, dust-proof packaging, insect proof packaging, deoxygenation packaging, radiation proof packaging, dangerous goods packaging, military goods packaging, children's packaging, anti-theft packaging, tank packaging, etc

the designed packaging must be qualified and reasonable. The first point to reflect the qualification and rationality is to protect the value of the product and facilitate loading, unloading, storage and transportation. The second point is that packaging must be economical

the six steps of cushioning packaging design proposed by lansmont company, and the ASTM standards that should be implemented in each step are listed. So far, the six step method has not only been adopted by the engineering community in the United States and included in the packaging engineering manual of the United States, but also accepted by countries all over the world, and has become a classic document guiding packaging design

content of six steps

1. determination of circulation environment

2. Determination of product characteristics

3 domestic enterprises have not formed an industry in this regard. Product redesign

4. Selection of cushioning materials

5. Packaging design

6. Packaging test

six steps use

■ step 1: determine the circulation environment: the determination of the cruelty of the logistics environment is an important step of buffer design, It mainly determines what kind of transportation hazards and dangerous situations exist, including accidental fall during handling, vehicle vibration, impact, temperature and humidity limit and stacking pressure. Here we mainly involve impact and vibration, but other factors are also very important in packaging design


impact may occur in any link of the transportation process, and the most serious impact is in the handling link. It includes the number of times a package falls during loading, unloading and transit. The most important thing is to know the height of the package that may fall


it is unimaginable not to experience vibration in the process of automobile transportation. The rotation of the automobile engine and the rotation of the wheels will also cause the vibration of the carriage. Uncertain vibration will cause the reaction of the vehicle suspension system and the deformation of the carriage. These uncertain vibrations may be periodic, and some vibrations may also be random

the vibration in the real transportation environment is extremely complex. Its vibration excitation is output in the frequency band composed of various factors. This vibration is usually considered as random vibration in the time domain, because it is impossible to predict what will happen at any time. However, from the perspective of frequency domain, a vehicle is easy to show the extremely high frequency level (or intensity)

the stable vibration in the transportation process usually occurs at low frequency. At low frequency (Hz), the most serious situation of vehicle operation is the vertical acceleration value of vibration of 0.5g. In the vibration experiment, we choose the acceleration of 0.5g on the vibrating table, which is also why

■ the second step is to determine the product characteristics: impact as the design basis, we need to input such as: including physical state, physical and chemical characteristics, so as to decide which packaging method to adopt, and determine the structural characteristics of the product, such as size, weight, center of gravity, shape, etc., as well as the mechanical characteristics of the product, such as brittleness value, natural frequency, compressive strength, etc. Vibration (looking for resonance point)

it is generally believed that vibration at a frequency insensitive to the product will not damage the product. Therefore, finding the sensitive frequency (resonance point) of the product is the key to packaging design. The purpose of vibration experiment on products is to find the natural frequency or resonance frequency of products

■ the third step is to improve the product again: according to the brittleness value of the product we tested, sometimes it is better to increase the strength of the product itself than to wrap it in expensive packaging. We need to weigh the cost of products, the reliability of products and the cost of packaging. Sometimes small improvements and redesign of products can appropriately increase the brittleness value of products; Although the cost of each product increases slightly, if this can greatly reduce the packaging cost of the product, the cost of the whole package will be relatively reduced

according to the feedback of the manufacturer (or company) on the packaging design, the feasibility improvement of the product will change greatly. For some companies, this feedback to packaging designers is an important step in new product design. Doing so can make their products of higher quality and lower packaging costs

■ step 4: evaluate the performance of the cushioning material: the performance of the material should be provided by the manufacturer of the material. In special cases, these data must be measured by yourself, including the ability of the material to absorb impact and the transmission characteristics of vibration


we know that the cushioning material can reduce the impact force transmitted to the product when the package falls. The impact cushioning curve describes how the impact force is transmitted through the material when goods of different weights fall onto the cushioning material. It is determined by the type, thickness and drop height of the material


a vibration curve of cushioning material describes the expansion and weakening of vibration by materials at different frequencies, which is determined by the type and thickness of materials

under normal circumstances, the curve of buffer materials attracts and leverages social capital, and the input line diagram decreases with the increase of static pressure load. This is determined by its buffering characteristics. When the static pressure continues to increase, the buffer force obtained by the mass block is also increasing. Because the buffer characteristics of the material have not changed, the natural frequency of the whole package decreases

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