Problems that should be considered when configurin

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Problems that should be considered in the allocation of stage machinery

in recent years, there has been an upsurge in the construction of cultural facilities across the country, especially in economically developed areas, in which various theatres have become the protagonists in the construction of cultural facilities. This is a concrete manifestation of China's rapid economic development, the gradual improvement of people's lives and the unprecedented prosperity of cultural and artistic undertakings. The construction of these facilities meets the growing needs of frequent artistic performances, various forms of cultural festivals, art festival activities and international cultural and art exchanges. It should be said that the construction of the National Grand Theater has promoted and driven the development of theater construction, and also greatly promoted the progress of China's stage machinery and equipment industry. The technical documents of the stage machinery engineering of the National Grand Theater have become a good example of the stage machinery design in the theater construction, and have played a great role in standardizing the technology and commercial activities of the stage machinery industry

it should be noted that at the same time of rapid development, there are still many problems worthy of attention, such as what kind of theater to build, what form to use in the theater stage, which equipment to configure, what kind of equipment level and technical parameters to use, what kind of control equipment to use, etc. However, many regions and departments did not conduct in-depth research and Analysis on these important issues before the construction of the theater, which made the theater construction with great blindness, and the stage machinery process configuration and equipment selection also fell into a misunderstanding. This paper attempts to understand the general principles of stage machinery configuration on the whole from the relationship between stage machinery configuration and selection and performance drama, management mode, performance system, etc

I. misunderstandings

due to the lack of specific regulations on the qualification management of stage process configuration and stage machinery design in China, the level of stage machinery design units in the theater is uneven, and their understanding of the performing arts, theater, stage and stage machinery equipment varies. Also due to the disorderly competition in the stage machinery design and construction market, the owners or construction units lack knowledge of stage machinery, In the current stage and stage machinery design of the theater, greedy for perfection, competing with each other, divorced from reality, and copying photo sets occur from time to time, which makes the stage process configuration, stage machinery and its selection, and even the design of the whole theater go into a misunderstanding. The specific manifestations are:

1. Inappropriate positioning of the theater

What theater to build is a very important issue. Whether it is a professional theater or a multi-purpose theater must be fully demonstrated before the construction decision, and the cultural background and performance resources, population status and quality, the original cultural facilities of this region and surrounding areas should be considered The trend of economic development, the prospect of cultural and artistic exchanges and the overall development plan of the region give the theater to be built an appropriate positioning. At present, many local theaters are positioned as mainly performing operas, dances, dramas and variety shows, taking into account meetings, regardless of the conditions and actual conditions of the region. In fact, this is a difficult subject to take into account

2. Inappropriate choice of stage form

many recently proposed or under construction theatres, regardless of the actual situation such as the type of drama and the scale of the theater, will adopt the style stage commonly used in European opera

3. Inappropriate expansion of stage size

most planned or under construction theaters determine the width of the stage opening to be 18 meters or more. Because the width of the stage opening is the basic basis for determining the stage structure, the inappropriate increase of the size of the stage opening will enlarge the size of the whole stage and the building, resulting in waste. The size of the stage entrance is closely related to the scale of the theater and other factors, and it can not be freely determined

4. Pursuit of too many types and quantities of stage machinery

the off stage equipment of these theatres, without exception, is equipped with lifting platforms on the main stage, car platforms on the side stage, and car mounted turntables on the back stage, supplemented by a large number of micro lifting platforms. There is one or two orchestra pit lifting platforms on the front desk. The equipment on the stage is also complete in variety and excessive in quantity

5. Too high requirements for the technical indicators of stage machinery

the technical indicators of stage machinery determined by these theatres are equivalent to or the same as those of the National Grand Theater, which are completely not combined with their own actual situation and actual needs

6. Pursue too high standards for theatres

some counties, county-level cities, cities and even a district have proposed that their theatres should be first-class in China, not backward in the world, and can meet the needs of large-scale literary and art groups at home and abroad. Some places also clearly put forward that it is equivalent to the level of Shanghai Grand Theater. Except that it can't compare with the National Grand Theater, other theaters are nothing less

II. Stage machinery configuration and performance operas

the main performance operas include opera, dance drama, drama, music (including musical), local opera, etc. Each drama has different requirements in terms of setting

props, the size of the performance area, the number of people participating in the performance, whether there is a band and the size of the band, the speed of scene change, and the possibility and degree of stage machinery participating in the performance. Therefore, the stage machinery and how many stage machinery are configured on the stage are closely related to the performance drama. The following table shows the relationship between the stage machinery layout and the types of performances (because there are many art forms, this table is for reference only)

the performance scale, setting, stage form and stage machinery of the big song and dance and variety shows often used in China are similar to those of operas and dance dramas

III. stage machinery configuration and theater

management mode

due to the habit formed in the old system of only paying attention to social benefits and not paying attention to economic benefits, the theater and troupe play less and less, and the theater and troupe enter the strange circle of no acting and no money, and the more they play, the more they lose money. Under the condition of market economy, the management strategy of theater is very important. However, the reform of the domestic literary and art system is not in-depth, and the relationship between theatres and literary and art groups, the performance system and management mode of theatres have not been clearly determined. With the increasing international exchanges, foreign business management models will gradually be used for reference. The operation and management mode of the theater is closely related to the allocation of stage machinery. Now I will briefly introduce the situation abroad

1. The theater performing repertoire is used by a performance group to perform a large number of excellent plays accumulated by the troupe over the years. The repertoire may be changed every night, and some theatres even have different repertoires for matinees and evenings. In Europe, almost all professional opera houses and professional theatres adopt this mode, which is a theater integrating the field and the group, that is, a resident theater. They create their own plays, have their own performance organization, and have long-term cooperation with the main actors. The stage of this kind of theater has a large number of stage machinery and equipment, especially the on-stage machinery and equipment, which are used to store and replace the scenes for the purpose of acting. In addition to the main stage, the theater stage often has side stage, back stage and corresponding stage machinery and equipment. There are also enough warehouses to store other sets, props, clothing, shoes and hats. At the same time, there should also be corresponding equipment and sites for the production of scenery, props and clothing, as well as appropriate transportation equipment

2. Theater performing repertory

this is another form of group unity. Performance groups frequently rotate to perform new plays. For example, a new work is launched every few weeks, and these plays are rarely repeated. This kind of theater also needs its own creative team and performance organization, and the theater stage also needs appropriate stage machinery and equipment, which are often highly adaptable. Sites and equipment for making sets, props and costumes, as well as corresponding transfer equipment are required

3. Touring theatres

such theatres generally accept the touring performances of performance groups at intervals of a few weeks or more. The theatres themselves generally do not create plays, nor do they have their own creative teams and performance organizations. There are few venues and equipment for making scenery, props, shoes and hats. This kind of theater has strong reception capacity and can accommodate all kinds of large and medium-sized performances. The stage machinery of the theater has strong adaptability. There are a complete range of equipment on the stage, a large number of equipment, and simple and practical equipment off the stage. In addition, the theater has perfect container transfer equipment to facilitate the transportation of foreign scenery

4. It is generally difficult to design for long-term continuous and high-temperature and low-temperature resistance; Long run theatre

the length of performance of a play in such a theater depends entirely on the box office value. The performance cycle of a play can be as short as months, as long as years or decades. This kind of theater is represented by the west end theater in London and Broadway in New York. Its representative plays such as Elvis Presley and Miss Saigon have been performed for more than ten years. The stage machinery of this kind of theater is mostly customized for specific plays, and does not need special sets, props and clothing production equipment

5. Multi purpose theater

the meaning of multi-purpose theater is different from that of multi-function theater. Multi purpose theater refers to the performance of two or more operas without changing the stage form, viewing relationship, auditorium shape, stage machinery and equipment and facilities. These two operas have similar requirements for acoustics, sight and equipment. For example, performing a dance drama in an opera house or a local drama in a theater is a theater that mainly performs one drama and performs another. Plays with relatively different performance requirements should not be performed in the same theater. For example, if other plays are performed in a professional concert hall, it is difficult to obtain good performance without changing their acoustic conditions. To change the acoustic conditions, we need to use various means to change the volume and reverberation time of the auditorium, change the number of seats and line of sight distance, etc., which is very difficult and will cost a lot of money. The setting of stage machinery in multi-purpose theatres should focus on the requirements of the leading plays and take into account the needs of the proposed plays

multifunctional theater refers to experimental theater, which is a theater where performing artists can change the stage form, performance relationship, reverberation time, perform different plays and even hold dances and banquets in order to explore new forms of performing art. In this kind of theater, either a large number of stage machinery are configured to meet various changes, or there are no mechanical equipment except simple stage machinery, and the required changes are completely temporarily completed manually

IV. stage machinery configuration and performance system

the two most important performance systems in the world are the western Stanny? Slavsky performance system and Mei Lanfang performance system in China

Stanny's performance system is a classic of western performance art. It advocates realism and idealism, can show nt and JT curves, emphasizes the blending of feelings and scenes, and launches contradictions and conflicts in a realistic environment. Tall and gorgeous scenery, gorgeous costumes and realistic props are indispensable for performance. Perspective is widely used in the setting, and solid wood is used in the production of the set, with many hard scenes. Opera, ballet, drama and musical are all originated from the West and transplanted to China. Their performances belong to the Stanny performance system, which requires a large number of and a variety of stage machinery to quickly change the set

it is completely different from Stanny's performance system. Mei Lanfang's performance system is the essence of traditional Chinese drama performance. It combines programming with a high degree of abstraction and virtualization

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI